First Data Corp.'s action to more than double the cash reserve it required from Frontier Airlines Holdings Inc. and withhold 50 percent of the proceeds from ticket sales it processed from the airline caused Frontier and its subsidiaries to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on April 10, 2008, according to a Frontier executive.
Edward M. Christie III, Vice President of Finance for Frontier, said in the filing, "On April 8, 2008, First Data sent a letter stating its intent to increase - beginning on April 11, 2008 - the collateral required under the Bankcard Agreement from $54.5 million to $130 million and to retain 50 percent of [Frontier's] bankcard sales proceeds."
Christie said First Data's move would have deprived the Denver-based airline of half of its income from ticket sales, thereby crippling the airline's ability to operate.
Frontier filed for bankruptcy to "prevent this threatened April 11, 2008, material alteration of our contract rights, and to develop and implement a comprehensive restructuring plan under the protections of Chapter 11."
Frontier's original agreement with First Data reportedly gave the processor the authority to withhold 45 percent of Frontier's sales until a given travel itinerary had been completed. The current increase to 50 percent is expected to rise to 100 percent in May 2008.
First Data - one of the largest merchant acquirers with an estimated $1.4 trillion worth of credit and offline debit transactions processed in 2007 - does not view itself as the cause of Frontier's woes.
"We regret that the current economic conditions have led to today's bankruptcy filing by Frontier Airlines," said First Data in a statement. "The terms of our agreement with Frontier Airlines are not unique; they are considered standard industry practice and terms originally agreed upon by Frontier.
"We have been in ongoing dialogue with Frontier Airlines for several months and will continue to work with them in as constructive a manner as possible."
Wavering credit markets and skyrocketing fuel prices have hit the airline industry hard. Skybus Airlines Inc. and Aloha Airgroup Inc., for example, have recently filed for bankruptcy.
Frontier, the second largest carrier to fly out of Denver International Airport, posted a net loss of $32,508,000 for the fourth quarter 2007, more than double its net loss at the same time the previous year.
In the filing, Frontier revealed it owes close to $109 million in unsecured credit to its 30 largest creditors. U.S. Bank, a subsidiary of U.S. Bancorp and the sixth largest commercial bank in the United States, is owed the most at over $93 million. In secured credit, Q Aviation LP, a Fort Worth, Texas-based aircraft leasing company, is owed almost $84 million.
Given the state of the airline industry, one may accuse First Data of being heavy-handed in its treatment of Frontier. But some find the processor far from blame.
"I think one could be equally sympathetic to the processor," said Philip J. Philliou, co-founder and Partner at New York-based payments consulting firm Philliou Selwanes Partners. "In the event of bankruptcy, if there's lots of tickets out there, who's going to be responsible for that?
"In the absence of a reserve, that's liable to mean the processor. I would fully expect processors to be demanding reserves from airlines. The question is, how much?
According to Philliou, "how much" is determined by a formula that is typically heavily negotiated by both the airline and the processor, so there should be no surprises.
"The question I would have is, What exactly was the trigger [for First Data's action]?" Philliou said. "What happened that the formula came out with this new answer?"
Philliou said his consultancy has experience looking at legal agreements between airlines and processors. The agreements are "fairly complicated, but if you look at processing agreements with any airlines, cruise lines, these type of formulas are standard."
"It's based on changing financial circumstances," he added. "Typically, one of the variables would be chargebacks. Chargebacks are heavily monitored.
"Any negative change in the airline's financial condition is obviously going to cause the processor to scrutinize the relationship and make sure that they are protected."
While the airline industry is suffering, ISOs and merchant level salespeople involved in the petroleum sector are making huge profits off of increases in fuel prices. The higher fuel costs, the greater the residuals.
A Texas-based ISO remarked that, due to oil prices, many ISOs are "riding high" in the payments industry. In the same breath, the ISO showed sympathy for Frontier's dilemma.
Frontier's bankruptcy petition was filed in the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York.
The petition gives Frontier the "time and legal protection necessary to obtain additional financing and enhance our liquidity," said Sean Menke, President and Chief Executive Officer at Frontier, in the filing. "The automatic stay provision of the bankruptcy code prohibits the credit card processor from increasing its holdback, and we are prepared to litigate this issue if necessary."
Despite its troubles, Frontier intends to operate its full schedule of flights and conduct normal business operations. For Philliou, the development between Frontier and First Data "underscores the cash flow sensitivity that the airline industry has at this point. They're under lots of pressures now and so cash flow is very sensitive and any change in cash flow is going to be problematic. That's what we saw ... with Frontier."
Toronto-based payments Attorney Adam Atlas agreed. "A lot of businesses operate on very small margins," he said. "Sometimes that margin is so small that a change in pricing by the acquirer could make the difference."
The Green Sheet Inc. is now a proud affiliate of Bankcard Life, a premier community that provides industry-leading training and resources for payment professionals. Click here for more information.
Notice to readers: These are archived articles. Contact names or information may be out of date. We regret any inconvenience.Prev Next